We have a paper about to come out on Neuroreport where a novel measure of hippocampal integrity is compared to more standard hippocampal volumetrics, for the purpose of prediction of future cognitive ability.

The abstract: The risk of Alzheimer’s disease can be predicted by volumetric analyses of MRI data in the medial temporal lobe. The present study compared a volumetric measurement of the hippocampus with a novel measure of hippocampal integrity (HI) derived from the ratio of parenchyma volume over total volume. Participants were cognitively intact and aged 60 years or older at baseline, and were tested twice, roughly 3 years apart. Participants had been recruited for a study on late-life major depression (LLMD) and were evenly split between depressed patients and controls. Linear regression models were applied to the data with a cognitive composite score as the outcome, and HI and volume, together or separately, as predictors. Subsequent cognitive performance was predicted well by models that included an interaction between HI and LLMD status, such that lower HI scores predicted more cognitive decline in depressed patients. More research is needed, but tentative results from this study appear to suggest that the newly introduced measure HI is an effective tool for the purpose of predicting future changes in general cognitive ability, and especially so in individuals with LLMD.

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Photo: Il gufo di Papa’.

Posted in Aging, Cognition, Dementia, Depression, Memory, Psychology | Tagged , , , , , , , ,

Introducing the Recency Ratio

Individuals with Alzheimer’s disease have been found to present a typical serial position
curve in immediate recall tests, showing poor primacy performance and exaggerated
recency recall. However, the recency advantage is usually lost after a delay. On this basis,
we examined whether the recency ratio (Rr), calculated by dividing recency performance
in an immediate memory task by recency performance in a delayed task, was a useful risk
marker of cognitive decline. We tested whether change in Mini-Mental State Examination
(MMSE) performance between baseline and follow-up was predicted by baseline Rr and
found this to be the case (N = 245). From these analyses, we conclude that participants
with high Rr scores, who show disproportionate recency recall in the immediate test
compared to the delayed test, present signs of being at risk for cognitive decline or

The rest is here. (Wife-photo-credit :)))


Posted in Aging, Cognition, Dementia, Memory, Psychology | Tagged , , , , , , , , , ,

Is there progress?

“Major depressive disorder (MDD) contributes to a significant worldwide disease burden, expected to be second only to heart disease by 2050. However, accurate diagnosis has been a historical weakness in clinical psychiatry. (…) Over the past two decades, literature on a growing number of (…) biomarkers for MDD increasingly suggests that MDD patients have significantly different biological profiles compare d to healthy controls. However, difficulty in elucidating their exact relationships within depression patrhology renders individual markers inconsistent diagnostic tools.”

Read more here.


Posted in Depression, Emotions, Psychology | Tagged ,

On the way out (part 2)

After three and a half years at Liverpool Hope University, which I thoroughly enojoyed mainly due to the warmth and professionalism of my colleagues, I have made the decision to seek out a new challenge. As of yesterday, I am now at Liverpool John Moores University. Not a big move, geographically speaking, since I am only a few miles down the road, but a move nonetheless; and, in that respect, a move that I have made with a hefty mixture of excitement and sadness. The excitement, obviously, comes from the prospect of working in a vibrant and strong School, and as part of a University that is trying to put itself on the map with clear vision and ambition. The sadness, on the other hand, comes with leaving behind my old Department, and my old students, albeit with the knowledge that the latter will be well looked after in my absence by the former.

I learned a lot during my time at Hope and I must say that I do feel transformed. Looking back, I had no idea what I was really getting myself into when I moved over from New York in 2012 to become a Lecturer; I feel that I have become, through some good and some bad experiences, a much better scientist and teacher, but also a better husband and hopefully person.

And I know Oskar (pictured) meaow-grees (wife photo credit).


Posted in Psychology

On the way out (part 1)

The input order of free recall has long been a subject of research in psychology (…). (I)tems presented at the beginning of the list (primacy) and items presented at the end of the list (recency) are remembered better than middle items (…). In this paper, (in contrast) we attempt to shed some light on (…) the output order of free recall (…) i.e., the order in which items are reported at test (…).

To read more, click here.


Posted in Aging, Cognition, Dementia, Memory, Psychology | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , ,

The Preservation of Memory

Hello blogosphere,

I have a book out that I have edited for Routledge (T&F), and I wanted to tell you about it.

The title is The Preservation of Memory and it collects works from a number of scholars (me included, I am no slouch!) in the UK and USA researching the overlap between memory, aging and dementia. You can click on the title above to read more about the book and its contents.

This is from the blurb: “An increase in average life expectancy has given rise to a number of pressing health challenges for the 21st century. Age-related memory loss, whether due to a neurodegenerative condition such as Alzheimer’s disease, or as a product of the normal process of aging, is perhaps the most significant of the health problems of old age presently confronting our society. The Preservation of Memory explores non-invasive, empirically sound strategies that can be implemented to ensure long-lasting and effective retention of information.”P1000650

I am pretty excited about it, and so are Oskar and Penelope!

(photo credit and all other remaining credit: wife)

Posted in Aging, Cognition, Dementia, Memory, Psychology | Tagged , , , , , , , , , , ,

Fit to last!

Just a heads up that Dr Dan Clark and I have had a paper accepted in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. The paper deals with the survival processing effect, which I covered here.

Here is a link to the paper page: the first fifty people to go there can download it for free!


Abstract: Mounting evidence indicates that processing items for their survival value produces superior recall compared to a number of other well-known memory-enhancing techniques, and that this mnemonic advantage remains up to 48 hours after encoding (Raymaekers et al., 2013). However, little attention has been dedicated to the survival processing effect in location memory, which may represent a better test of adaptive memory than retrieval of verbal information. The current study aims to fill this gap by exploring the longevity of the survival processing effect with both word list (Experiment 1) and location based (Experiment 2) stimuli. Participants rated target items using a single incidental encoding scenario, either Survival versus Pleasantness (word stimuli) or Survival versus Scavenger Hunt (location stimuli). They were then asked to complete a surprise recall task immediately after the ratings and a second recall task 96 hours later. The results demonstrated that, despite a general reduction in memory performance across time, the survival processing advantage was detected at both test times for both word lists and location. These findings provide further support for the survival processing effect and extend the observed effect duration for both word lists and location to 96 hours.

Posted in Cognition, Memory, Psychology | Tagged , , ,